The Highway Police was established in 1945 to serve as a security guard and was affiliated with the Taiwan Highway Bureau. In 1950, it was renamed the Security Guard Unit. In 1952, it was reformed as the Taiwan Highway Police Unit and expanded into the Taiwan Highway Police Corps in 1970.
The Sun Yat-Sen Freeway was open to traffic on all fronts on October 31, 1978. The Highway Police Bureau, National Police Administration, Ministry of the Interior was founded on March 1, 1979 to be responsible for the business of the Taiwan Highway Police Corps.
The revised Organization Regulation passed its third reading in the Legislative Yuan on January 7, 1993 and was promulgated by the President on February 5, 1993 to entitle the Bureau to the National Highway Police Bureau, National Police Administration, Ministry of the Interior.
Due to the separation of the Administration and Bureau in April 1995, Taiwan Highway Police Corps moved to Taichung on December 1, 1995, and since then, the National Highway Police Bureau (NHPB) has been exclusively responsible for the maintenance of national highway traffic and law-and-order missions.
Due to accommodating the Taiwan Provincial Government Reorganization Act on July 1, 1999, NHPB was consolidated with Taiwan Highway Police Corps to be responsible for the maintenance of national and provincial highway and expressway traffic and law-and-order missions.